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The Nobel Prize is a prestigious international award given annually in several categories to individuals or organizations that have made outstanding contributions in various fields. It was established by the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish inventor, engineer, and industrialist who invented dynamite. The Nobel Prize has been awarded annually since 1901. The prizes are bestowed in six categories: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, and Economic Sciences.

History of the Nobel Prize

Alfred Nobel was born on October 21, 1833, in Stockholm, Sweden. He held 355 different patents and was best known for inventing dynamite, a powerful explosive that revolutionized industries such as mining and construction. In 1888, Alfred Nobel’s brother Ludvig died, and a French newspaper mistakenly published an obituary for Alfred instead, referring to him as the “merchant of death” due to his invention of dynamite. This incident reportedly deeply affected Nobel and led him to contemplate his legacy. He became concerned about the destructive potential of his invention and its impact on humanity. As a result, in his will, he directed that the majority of his fortune be used to establish the Nobel Prizes.

The Nobel Prize is a set of prestigious international awards presented annually in several categories, including Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, and Economic Sciences. The prizes were established by the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish inventor, engineer, and industrialist, who left his entire estate to fund these awards upon his death in 1896.

The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901, five years after Nobel’s death. The Nobel Foundation, established to administer the prizes, was founded in 1900. The prizes were intended to recognize individuals or organizations that made significant contributions to humanity in their respective fields.

The Nobel have become widely recognized as the most prestigious awards in their respective fields. They carry significant monetary prizes, international recognition, and often have a profound impact on the recipients’ careers and fields of study. The awards are presented annually on December 10th, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death, in a ceremony attended by dignitaries and members of the royal families of Sweden and Norway.

Unknown facts of Nobel Prize


The Nobel Prize was established by the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish inventor, engineer, and industrialist. Nobel’s will, written in 1895, stipulated that the prizes should be awarded to individuals who have made outstanding contributions in their respective fields.


Surprisingly, the Nobel Peace Prize nomination process is open to a wide range of people and organizations. Qualified nominators include members of national governments, university professors, directors of peace research institutes, and even previous laureates.

Anonymous Nominations:

The nominations for Nobel Prizes are kept confidential for 50 years. This means that the nominees’ identities are not revealed during this period, ensuring that the selection process remains impartial.

Posthumous Awards:

The Nobel Prize can be awarded posthumously. In such cases, if a laureate passes away between the announcement and the award ceremony, the prize is typically awarded to the recipient’s estate or foundation.

Nobel Diploma and Medal:

Each Nobel laureate receives a Nobel diploma, a gold medal, and a cash prize. The diploma and medal are traditionally presented by the King of Sweden at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm, except for the Nobel Peace Prize, which is presented in Oslo, Norway.

Multiple Laureates:

It is possible for the Nobel to be awarded to multiple individuals or organizations within a single category. The prize can be shared by a maximum of three laureates, as outlined in Alfred Nobel’s will.

Economic Sciences:

While the Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, and Peace were established by Alfred Nobel, the Sveriges Riksbank (the central bank of Sweden) established the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1968. It is not one of the original awards mentioned in Nobel’s will but is commonly referred to as a Nobel Prize.

Omission of Mathematics:

Despite its significant contributions to science, mathematics is not included as a category for the Nobel Prize. This omission has led to ongoing discussions and debates within the mathematical community.

Longevity of the Prizes:

The Nobel Prizes have been awarded annually since 1901, with the exception of a few years. During World War I and II, no prizes were awarded from 1914 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1942.

Non-Recognition of Teams:

The Nobel Prize is typically awarded to individuals or organizations rather than collaborative teams. This has been a subject of criticism, as many groundbreaking achievements in science and other fields are often the result of team efforts.

Gender Imbalance:

There has been a noticeable gender imbalance in the Nobel Prizes. As of 2021, out of the 603 Nobel Prizes awarded in Physics, Chemistry, and Medicine, only 23 have been awarded to women. Efforts are being made to address this gender gap and promote diversity in Nobel Prize recognition.

Controversial Awards:

Some Nobel Prize decisions have sparked controversy. For example, the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to certain individuals or organizations has been met with criticism, as opinions on what constitutes peace and deserving recipients can vary widely.

Evolving Categories:

The categories for the Nobel Prize have evolved over time. The original categories established by Alfred Nobel were Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, and Peace. The Sveriges Riksbank added the category of Economic Sciences later on.

Diplomatic Challenges:

The Nobel Peace Prize has occasionally faced diplomatic challenges. In some instances, laureates have been unable to personally accept the award due to political pressure or imprisonment. In such cases, representatives or family members have accepted the prize on their behalf.

Post-Award Impact:

Winning a Nobel Prize often brings significant recognition and opportunities for further research, funding, and collaboration. The laureates’ contributions continue to be celebrated and their expertise sought after in their respective fields.

Nobel Banquets:

Alongside the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony, an extravagant banquet is held in honor of the laureates in Stockholm, Sweden. The banquet includes traditional Swedish cuisine, speeches, and performances, providing an opportunity for laureates to interact with royalty, diplomats, and other distinguished guests.

Statues and Memorials:

Various statues and memorials dedicated to Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prize exist around the world. One notable example is the Nobel Monument in Oslo, Norway, which features a large obelisk surrounded by statues representing the different Nobel Prize categories.

International Recognition:

The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as one of the most prestigious awards globally, and it has become a symbol of excellence in various fields. Many Nobel laureates have gone on to receive numerous other accolades and honors throughout their careers.

Prizes for Peace Efforts:

The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to individuals and organizations involved in peace negotiations, disarmament efforts, human rights advocacy, and humanitarian work. It recognizes not only achievements in ending conflicts but also contributions to preventing future conflicts and promoting peace globally.

Literature Language Restrictions:

The Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded based on the originality, literary merit, and impact of a writer’s work. However, until 2018, the award was limited to works written in certain languages, mainly English, French, German, Spanish, and Swedish. Since then, the scope has expanded to include works from all languages.

No Posthumous Nominations:

While posthumous awards are possible, Nobel Prizes cannot be awarded posthumously based on nominations made after an individual’s death. The nominee must have been alive at the time of nomination.

Financial Prize Amount:

The cash prize associated with each Nobel Prize category has varied over the years. As of 2021, the prize amount for each category is 10 million Swedish kronor (SEK). The amount is shared equally among laureates in a particular category if there are multiple winners.


The Nobel Prize diplomas are handwritten, beautifully illustrated documents that accompany the medals and cash prizes. These diplomas contain a citation, usually in Latin, highlighting the laureate’s specific achievements and contributions.

Alternative Nobel Prizes:

In addition to the Nobel Prizes, several alternative awards have been established to recognize achievements in specific areas. Examples include the Ig Nobel Prizes, which honor unusual and humorous scientific research, and the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the “Alternative Nobel Prize,” which celebrates individuals and organizations working for social change.

Nobel Museum:

The Nobel Museum, located in Stockholm, Sweden, provides visitors with an interactive and immersive experience about the Nobel Prize, its laureates, and their achievements. The museum showcases exhibits that explore the history, impact, and stories behind the Nobel Prizes.

Nobel Prize Medals:

The Nobel Prize medals are made of 18-carat green gold (an alloy of gold and silver) and weigh approximately 175 grams. The front side of the medal features Alfred Nobel’s profile, while the reverse side varies depending on the category of the prize.

Age Restrictions:

There are no specific age restrictions for Nobel Prize recipients. However, the average age of Nobel laureates tends to be higher, as significant contributions and breakthroughs often require years of research and experience.

Nominations and Selection Process:

Nominations for the Nobel Prize are typically submitted by qualified individuals and organizations, such as Nobel laureates, university professors, and members of scientific academies. The nominations undergo a rigorous evaluation process by expert committees and advisory boards, leading to the selection of laureates.

Multiple Prizes for Individuals:

Some individuals have been awarded multiple Nobel Prizes throughout their careers. Notable examples include Marie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911, and John Bardeen, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972.

Nobel Prize Endowments:

The Nobel Prizes are supported by the funds and investments from the Nobel Foundation. Alfred Nobel’s will allocated the majority of his fortune to fund the prizes, and the investments made by the foundation sustain the ongoing awarding of the prizes.

Lecture Requirement:

Nobel laureates are typically expected to deliver a lecture or presentation related to their work or achievements. These lectures provide an opportunity for laureates to share their insights, discoveries, and perspectives with the scientific and academic communities.

Museum Exhibits:

The Nobel Prize Museum showcases interactive exhibits on the laureates, their contributions, and the impact of their work. It also presents temporary exhibitions exploring various themes related to the Nobel Prizes and hosts events to engage the public in discussions on scientific, literary, and peace-related topics.


Although rare, there have been instances where Nobel Prizes were declined by the recipients. One notable example is Boris Pasternak, who declined the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1958 due to political pressure from the Soviet Union.

Nomination Threshold:

To be considered for a Nobel Prize, individuals must be nominated by qualified nominators. However, the number of nominations a person receives does not directly affect their chances of winning. Even a single nomination can make someone eligible for consideration.

Special Commemorative Medals:

In some cases, when the Nobel Prize cannot be awarded due to unforeseen circumstances or specific rules, the Nobel Committees have awarded special commemorative medals or recognition to acknowledge exceptional achievements or contributions.

Contributions to Humanity:

Alfred Nobel’s will states that the Nobel Prizes should be awarded to individuals or organizations that have made the “greatest benefit to mankind.” This broad criterion allows for a wide range of contributions in various fields to be recognized.

Announcement Dates:

The Nobel Prize announcements are spread out over several days, typically during early October. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is usually announced first, followed by Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and finally, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Supporting Scientific Research:

The Nobel Prizes have had a significant impact on scientific research, as the recognition and financial support provided to laureates often enable them to continue their work, establish research institutes, or fund projects that advance knowledge and innovation.

Laureate Diversity:

Over the years, the Nobel Prizes have been awarded to individuals from various countries and backgrounds, highlighting the global nature of scientific, literary, and peace-related achievements. The recognition of diverse contributions reflects the international reach and importance of the Nobel Prizes.

Nobel Prize Legacy:

The Nobel Prizes have created a lasting legacy by inspiring future generations of scientists, writers, peacemakers, and economists to pursue excellence in their fields and make positive contributions to society. The laureates serve as role models and sources of inspiration for aspiring individuals worldwide.


Since 2009, the Nobel Prize Concert has been held annually in Stockholm to celebrate the laureates. Renowned musicians and orchestras from around the world come together to perform at this prestigious event, showcasing the intersection of music and the Nobel Prizes.

Influence on Policies:

Nobel laureates often leverage their recognition to influence policies, advocate for social causes, and address global issues. Their expertise and credibility allow them to have a significant impact on shaping public opinion and driving positive change.

Research Grants:

Nobel laureates are often granted additional research funding after receiving the prize. These grants allow them to further their work and pursue new avenues of scientific discovery or literary exploration.

Impact on Education:

The recognition and prestige associated with the Nobel Prize have a profound impact on education. Universities and educational institutions that have produced Nobel laureates often receive increased recognition and attract top talent in their respective fields.

Literature Controversies:

The selection process for the Nobel Prize in Literature has occasionally sparked controversies. The choices of laureates have faced criticism for being politically motivated or favoring certain literary traditions or genres over others.

Nobel Week:

Nobel Week is a series of events and activities held in Stockholm, Sweden, leading up to the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. It includes lectures, exhibitions, concerts, and other cultural and scientific events that engage the public and celebrate the achievements of the laureates.

Celebrations Around the World:

The announcement of Nobel laureates is celebrated not only in Sweden but also in countries around the world. Universities, organizations, and communities often host events to honor the achievements of their fellow citizens or prominent figures who have received the Nobel Prize.


Many Nobel laureates have become philanthropists, using their prize money and influence to establish foundations or support charitable initiatives. Their efforts aim to address pressing global challenges and make a positive impact on society.

Influence on Policy and Peace Processes:

The Nobel Peace Prize has played a significant role in influencing peace processes and negotiations. It has provided recognition and support to individuals and organizations involved in resolving conflicts, facilitating dialogue, and promoting reconciliation.

Impact on Public Awareness:

It is increase public awareness of important scientific, literary, and humanitarian achievements. They inspire curiosity, promote scientific literacy, and encourage discussions on critical issues, thereby fostering a more engaged and informed society.

Diversity and Inclusion Efforts:

The Nobel Foundation and committees have made efforts to increase diversity and inclusion in the selection of laureates. They strive to ensure that the Nobel Prizes reflect the full spectrum of human contributions, regardless of gender, ethnicity, or background.

Long-Term Legacy of Nobel Laureates:

The impact of Nobel laureates extends beyond their initial recognition. Their groundbreaking discoveries, literary works, and peace efforts often have far-reaching effects, shaping entire fields of study, influencing future generations, and leaving a lasting imprint on human history.

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Environmental Contributions:

In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition of environmental issues, and efforts have been made to highlight contributions in this area. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for example, has recognized advancements in environmental research and sustainable technologies.

Peace Medals:

In addition to the Nobel Peace Prize itself, laureates also receive a diploma, a gold medal, and a laureate’s diploma. The design of the Nobel Peace Prize medal features three men embracing, symbolizing the fraternal embrace of nations.


The criteria and scope of the Nobel Prizes have evolved over time. In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank (Swedish National Bank) established the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel to recognize achievements in the field of economics.


Although the Nobel are primarily awarded to individuals, there have been instances where organizations or institutions have received the Nobel Peace Prize. Notable examples include the International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders).


The work and discoveries of Nobel laureates are often published and widely disseminated. These publications contribute to the body of knowledge in their respective fields and serve as references for future research and scholarly endeavors.

Endowment Management:

The funds and investments of the Nobel Foundation are managed with a long-term perspective to ensure the sustainability of the Nobel Prizes. The foundation’s investment strategy focuses on balancing financial stability and responsible asset management.

Public Lectures:

In addition to the Nobel Prize lectures delivered by the laureates themselves, some Nobel Prize events feature public lectures that allow the general audience to learn about the laureates’ work and engage in discussions on scientific, literary, and peace-related topics.

Commemorative Stamps:

Several countries have issued postage stamps to commemorate Nobel Prize laureates and their achievements. These stamps often feature the laureate’s portrait, Nobel Prize symbols, or illustrations related to their groundbreaking contributions.

Social Impact:

The Nobel Prizes have a profound social impact, serving as a catalyst for change and inspiring individuals to pursue careers in science, literature, peacebuilding, and economics. They encourage innoion, foster critical thinking, and promote positive societal transformation.

Inspiration for Fiction:

The Nobel Prizes have inspired various works of fiction, including novels, plays, and movies. Writers and filmmakers have explored the themes of genius, recognition, and the pursuit of excellence, drawing inspiration from the stories of Nobel laureates.

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